FOOD ,HEALTH,HYDROGENATEDOIL,TRANSFATS,LDL,HDL,OMEGA-3,CHOLESTEROL,FISH,EGG,MILK

Hydrogenated oils containing trans fats are tastier than foods cooked in plant oils. Most hydrogenated oils involve hydrogenation of palm oils. Hydrogenation increases their shelf life, makes them easier to cook and spoil less easily. French fries, microwave popcorns and food cooked by traditional halwais are cooked in hydrogenated trans fats.

Most commercially catered food prepared from trans fats are tasty and often people overeat by at least 500 calories because of the taste provided by the hydrogenated oils.

Per serving, 5 grams of trans fatty acids is present in French fries, 6 gm in breaded fish burger, 5 gm in breaded chicken nuggets, 2 gm in biscuits, 2.7 gm in margarine, 2 gm in cakes, 1.6 gm in corn chips, 1.2 gm in microwave popcorn and 1.1 gm in pizza.

Four gm of trans fats are present in one parantha, 3.4 gm in one poori, 5.2 gm in one bhatura, 1.7 gm in one dosa, 6.1 gm in one tikki, 3 gm in one samosa, 2 gm in one serving of pakoda, 2.9 gm in one serving of vegetable pulao and 3.6 gm in one serving of halwa.

Just about 2.6 gm a day of trans fats, half as much contained in a packet of French fries can raise the risk of heart disease significantly.

Some trans fats occur naturally in foods, especially those of animal origin. The chemical configuration of trans fatty acids confers harmful effects, including adverse influences on blood LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. They raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterols. By comparison, consumption of saturated fats also raises the LDL cholesterol concentration, but does not lower HDL. Thus, while saturated fats adversely affect the lipid profile, they may not be as harmful as trans fatty acids.

Trans fatty acids may also interfere with the desaturation and elongation of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. These are important for the prevention of heart disease and complications of pregnancy. In an analysis from the Nurses’ Health Study, for each increase of 2 percent of energy from trans fat, the relative risk for incident coronary heart disease was 1.93. There are no known physiologic benefits related to the consumption of trans fatty acids; thus, reduction in their intake makes sense.

The words “partially hydrogenated” on the list of package ingredients are clues to their presence. Since 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has made it a requirement that Nutrition Facts labels portray trans fat content. FDA estimates that the average daily intake of trans fat in the U.S. population is about 5.8 grams or 2.6% of calories per day for individuals 20 years of age and older. On average, Americans consume approximately 4 to 5 times as much saturated fat as trans fat in their diet. FDA’s label requirement is that if a dietary supplement contains a reportable amount of trans fat, which is 0.5 gram or more, dietary supplement manufacturers must list the amounts on the Supplement Facts panel. The FDA final rule on trans fatty acids requires that the amount of trans fats in a serving be listed on a separate line under saturated fats on the Nutrition Facts panel.

However, trans fats do not have to be listed if the total fat in a food is less than 0.5 gram (or 1/2 gram) per serving.

All restaurants in New York have banned all food items, which contain more than 0.5 gm of trans fats in one serving.

Guidelines
Check the Nutrition Facts panel: Choose foods lower in saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol.
Choose alternative fats. Replace saturated and trans fats in your diet with mono- and polyunsaturated fats. These fats do not raise LDL (or “bad”) cholesterol levels and have health benefits when eaten in moderation. Sources of monounsaturated fats include olive and canola oils. Sources of polyunsaturated fats include soybean, corn, sunflower oils, and foods like nuts.
Choose vegetable oils (except coconut and palm kernel oils) and soft margarines (liquid, tub, or spray) more often because the combined amount of saturated and trans fats is lower than the amount in solid shortenings, hard margarines, and animal fats, including butter.
Consider fish. Most fish are lower in saturated fat than meat. Some fish, such as mackerel, sardines and salmon, contain omega-3 fatty acids that are being studied to determine if they offer protection against heart disease.
Limit foods high in cholesterol such as liver and other organ meats, egg yolks and full-fat dairy products, like whole milk.
Choose foods low in saturated fat such as fat free or 1% dairy products, lean meats, fish, skinless poultry, whole grain foods and fruit and vegetables.

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